OAuthとOpenIDに深刻な脆弱性か–Facebookなど大手サイトに影響も

digital-security-padlock-protection-binary-virus-hack-malware

 

OpenSSLの脆弱性「Heartbleed」に続き、人気のオープンソースセキュリ ティソフトウェアでまた1つ大きな脆弱性が見つかった。今回、脆 弱性が見つかったのはログインツールの「OAuth」と「OpenID」で、これらのツールは多数のウェブサイトと、Google、Facebook、 Microsoft、LinkedInといったテクノロジ大手に使われている。

 

シンガポールにあるNanyang Technological University(南洋理工大学)で学ぶ博士課程の学生Wang Jing氏は、「Covert Redirect」という深刻な脆弱性によって、影響を受けるサイトのドメイン上でログイン用ポップアップ画面を偽装できることを発見した。Covert Redirectは、既知のエクスプロイトパラメータに基づいている。

 

たとえば、悪意あるフィッシングリンクをクリックすると、 Facebook内でポップアップウィンドウが開き、アプリを許可するよう求められる。 Covert Redirect脆弱性の場合、本物に似た偽ドメイン名を使ってユーザーをだますのではなく、本物のサイトアドレスを使って許可を求める。

 

ユーザーがログインの許可を選択すると、正当なウェブサイトではなく攻撃者に個人データが送られてしまう。渡される個人データは、何を要求されるかにもよるが、メールアドレス、誕生日、連絡先リスト、さらにはアカウント管理情報にも及ぶ可能性がある。

 

アプリを許可したかどうかにかかわらず、標的になったユーザーはその後、攻撃者が選ぶウェブサイトにリダイレクトされ、そこでさらなる攻撃を受ける可能性がある。

 

Wang 氏によると、すでにFacebookには連絡し、この脆弱性を報告したが、同社は「OAuth 2.0に関連するリスクは理解していた」と述べた上で、「当プラットフォーム上の各アプリケーションにホワイトリストの利用を強制することが難しい」た め、このバグを修正することは「短期間で達成できるものではない」と返答したという。

 

影響を受けるサイトはFacebookだけではない。Wang氏は、Google、LinkedIn、Microsoftにもこの件を報告したが、問題への対処についてさまざまな回答を受け取ったと述べている。

 

Google(OpenID を利用している)はWang氏に、現在この問題に取り組んでいると伝えた。LinkedInは、この件に関するブログを公開 したと述べた。一方でMicrosoftは、調査を行ったところ、脆弱性はサードパーティーのドメインに存在しており、自社サイトには存在しないと述べ た。

 

この記事は海外CBS Interactive発の記事を朝日インタラクティブが日本向けに編集したものです。



 

 

 

関連ニュース:
http://www.cnet.com/news/serious-security-flaw-in-oauth-and-openid-discovered/

tencent qq bug

qq-messenger-53

 

Tencent QQ OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

 

 

 

(1) Domain:
qq.com

 

 

“Tencent QQ, popularly known as QQ, is an instant messaging software service developed by Chinese company Tencent Holdings Limited. QQ also offers a variety of services, including online social games, music, shopping, microblogging, movies, platform of games and group and voice chat. As of January 2015, there are 829 million active QQ accounts, with a peak of 176.4 million simultaneous online QQ users.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Tencent QQ web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks. 

 

 

The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

 

(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:

QQ’s SSO system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri” in SSO system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to QQ.

 

At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters (sensitive information is contained in HTTP header.),

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token…

“&scope”=get_user_info%2Cadd_share…

 

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

 

 

The vulnerabilities occurs at page “/oauth/show?” with parameter “&redirect_uri”, e.g.
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=ConfirmPage&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dqq&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share [1]

 

 

Before acceptance of third-party application:

 

When a logged-in QQ user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri”.

 

If a user has not logged onto QQ and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

 

 

After acceptance of third-party application:

 

A logged-in QQ user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

 

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.

 

 

 

(2.1.1) QQ would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri” parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks.

 

Hence, a user could be redirected from QQ to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from QQ directly. The number of QQ’s SSO client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

 

Before acceptance of the third-party application, QQ’s SSO system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

 

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass QQ’s authentication system and attack more easily.

 

Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “https://dailymem.wordpress.com/“. Can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
cjcp.com.cn

 

Vulnerable URL in this domain:
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=qq&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A2%258E%25E5%25A4%258F.html

 

Vulnerable URL from QQ that is related to cjcp.com.cn:
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=Login&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dqq&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share

 

POC:
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=Login&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2F%3Fm%3Duser%26a%3DotherLogin%26type%3Dqq%26furl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Ftetraph.com%252Fessayjeans%252Fseasons%252F%2525E7%2525A2%25258E%2525E5%2525A4%25258F.html&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share [2]

 

 

 

 

(2.2) Another method for attackers.

Attackers enter the following URL in browser,
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=qq&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A2%258E%25E5%25A4%258F.html

 

Then, attackers can get URL below,
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=Login&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dqq&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share [3]

 

If users click URL [3], the same thing will happen as URL [2].

 

 

 

(2.3) The following URLs have the same vulnerabilities.
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/qzoneoauth_authorize?oauth_consumer_key=209717&oauth_token=14921471022138330625&oauth_callback=http://user.nipic.com/api/login/qq/callback.asp

https://graph.qq.com/oauth2.0/authorize?client_id=100246654&redirect_uri=http://youxi.baidu.com/tp/QQAuth.jsp&response_type=code

https://open.t.qq.com/cgi-bin/oauth2/authorize?client_id=801132217&response_type=code&redirect_uri=http://passport.tianya.cn/login/txwb.do

 

 

POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-lxaX9xvUfE

 

 

Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/tencent-qq-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html

 

 



 

(3) What is Covert Redirect? 

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on, such as OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well. 



 

Discover and Reporter:
Jing Wang, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/

 

 

 

 

 

Related Articles:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/tencent-qq-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect
https://twitter.com/yangziyou/status/615125849306632193
https://biyiniao.wordpress.com/2014/08/28/qq-bugs/
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/tencent-qq-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect
http://frenchairing.blogspot.com/2014/08/tencent-qq-exploit.html
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120144631154854/
http://guyuzui.lofter.com/post/1ccdcda4_6f0b982
http://mathpost.tumblr.com/post/119490927560/itinfotech-id-oauth
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/tencent-qq-oauth-2-0
https://computertechhut.wordpress.com/2014/08/28/tencent-qq-bug/
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/05/tencent-qq-bug.html

 

 

 

 

===========

 

 

 


腾讯 QQ 网站 OAuth 2.0 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 (信息泄漏 & 公开重定向) 





(1) 域名:
qq.com

 

 

” 腾讯QQ(简称“QQ”)是腾讯公司开发的一款基于Internet的即时通信(IM)软件。腾讯QQ支持在线聊天、视频通话、点对点断点续传文件、共享 文件、网络硬盘、自定义面板、QQ邮箱等多种功能,并可与多种通讯终端相连。2015年,QQ继续为用户创造良好的通讯体验!其标志是一只戴着红色围巾的 小企鹅。目前QQ已经覆盖Microsoft Windows、OS X、Android、iOS、Windows Phone等多种主流平台” (百度百科)

 

 

 

 

 

(2) 漏洞描述:

腾讯 QQ  网站有有一个计算机安全问题,黑客可以对它进行隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络攻击。

 

 

这 个漏洞不需要用户登录,测试是基于微软 Windows 8 的 IE (10.0.9200.16750); Ubuntu (14.04) 的 Mozilla 火狐 (Firefox 34.0) 和 谷歌 Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0; 以及苹果 OS X Lion 10.7 的 Safari 6.16。

 

 

(2.1) 漏洞细节:

QQ 的 SSO 系统可能遭到攻击。更确切地说, QQ 对 SSO 系统的 parameter “&redirect_uri“ 验证不够充分。可以用来构造对 QQ 的 URL跳转 攻击。

 

 

 

与此同时,这个漏洞可以用下面的参数来收集第三方 App 和 用户 的敏感信息(敏感信息包含在 HTTP header里),

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token…

“&scope”=get_user_info%2Cadd_share…

 

 

它也增加了对第三方网站 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

 

漏洞地点 “/oauth/show?”,参数”&redirect_uri”, e.g.
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=ConfirmPage&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dqq&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share [1]

 

 

 

同意三方 App 前:

当一个已经登录的 QQ 用户点击上面的 URL ([1]), 对话框会询问他是否接受第三方 App 接收他的信息。如果同意,他会被跳转到 参数 “&redirect_uri” 的 URL。

 

 

如果没有登录的 QQ 用户点击 URL ([1]), 他登录后会发生同样的事情。

 

 

 

同意三方 App 后:

已经登录的 QQ 用户 不会再被询问是否接受 三方 App。当他点击 URL ([1]) 时,他会被直接跳转到攻击者控制的页面。

 

 

如果 QQ 用户没有登录,攻击依然可以在要求他登录的QQ的对话框被确认后完成(这个过程不会提示任何和三方 App 有关的内容)。

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2.1.1) QQ 一般会允许属于已被验证过得三方 App domain 的所有 URLs。 然而,这些 URLs 可以被操控。比如,参数 “&redirect_uri” 是被三方 App 设置的,但攻击者可以修改此参数的值。

 

 

因此,QQ 用户意识不到他会被先从 QQ 跳转到第三方 App 的网页,然后从此网页跳转到有害的网页。这与从 QQ 直接跳转到有害网页是一样的。

 

 

因为 QQ 的 SSO 客户很多,这样的攻击可以很常见。

 

 

在同意三方 App 之前,QQ 的 SSO 让用户更容易相信被跳转的页面是安全的。这增加了三方 App 被 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

 

同意三方 App 后, 攻击者可以完全绕过 QQ 的 URL跳转 验证系统。

 

 

用了一个页面进行了测试, 页面是 “http://whitehatpostlike.lofter.com/“. 可以假定它是有害的,并且含有收集三方 App 和用户敏感信息的 code。

 

 

下面是一个有漏洞的三方 domain:
cjcp.com.cn

 

 

这个 domain 有漏洞的 URL:
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=qq&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A2%258E%25E5%25A4%258F.html

 

 

QQ 与 cjcp.com.cn 有关的有漏洞的 URL:
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=Login&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dqq&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share

 

 

POC:
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=Login&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2F%3Fm%3Duser%26a%3DotherLogin%26type%3Dqq%26furl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Ftetraph.com%252Fessayjeans%252Fseasons%252F%2525E7%2525A2%25258E%2525E5%2525A4%25258F.html&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share [2]

 

 

 

 

(2.2) 攻击的另一个方法.


攻击者在浏览器输入 URL,
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=qq&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A2%258E%25E5%25A4%258F.html

 


然后,攻击者可以得到 URL,
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=Login&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dqq&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share [3]

 

如果用户点击 URL [3], 发生的事情和 URL [2] 一样.

 

 

 

 

(2.3)下面的 URLs 有同样的漏洞.
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/qzoneoauth_authorize?oauth_consumer_key=209717&oauth_token=14921471022138330625&oauth_callback=http://user.nipic.com/api/login/qq/callback.asp

 

https://graph.qq.com/oauth2.0/authorize?client_id=100246654&redirect_uri=http://youxi.baidu.com/tp/QQAuth.jsp&response_type=code

 

 

https://open.t.qq.com/cgi-bin/oauth2/authorize?client_id=801132217&response_type=code&redirect_uri=http://passport.tianya.cn/login/txwb.do

 

 

 

POC 视频:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-lxaX9xvUfE

 

 

博客细节:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/tencent-qq-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(3) 什么是隐蔽重定向? 

隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 是一个计算机网络安全漏洞。这个漏洞发布于 2014年5月。漏洞成因是网络应用软件对跳转到合作者的跳转没有充分过滤。这个漏洞经常利用第三方网站 (包括合作网站) 的公开重定向 (Open Redirect) 或者 跨站脚本漏洞 (XSS – Cross-site Scripting) 问题。

 

隐蔽重定向也对单点登录 (single sign-on) 有影响。最初发布的是对两款常用登录软件 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 的影响。黑客可以利用真实的网站进行网络钓鱼,从而窃取用户敏感信息。几乎所用提供 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 服务的网站都被影响。隐蔽重定向也可以和 跨站请求伪造 (CSRF – Cross-site Request Forgery) 一起利用。

 

 

 

 



 

MailChimp’s Login, Olark, Kaneva Sign-in Page Open Redirect 0Day Attack Bugs

stock-footage-blue-binary-tunnel-that-suggests-computer-data-flow-communication-concept

 

MailChimp, Olark, Kaneva online websites have computer cyber security bug problems. They can be exploited by Open Redirect (Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards) attacks. Here is the description of Open Redirect: “A web application accepts a user-controlled input that specifies a link to an external site, and uses that link in a Redirect. This simplifies phishing attacks. An http parameter may contain a URL value and could cause the web application to redirect the request to the specified URL. By modifying the URL value to a malicious site, an attacker may successfully launch a phishing scam and steal user credentials. Because the server name in the modified link is identical to the original site, phishing attempts have a more trustworthy appearance.” (From CWE)

 


(1) MailChimp’s Login Page Open Redirect Vulnerability





Poc Video:
The vulnerability exists at “http://login.mailchimp.com/?” page with “referrer” parameter, e.g.
http://login.mailchimp.com/?referrer=http://google.com [1]




When a user clicks the URL ([1]) before login, the MailChimp “login page” appears. The user needs to enter his/her username and password. When this is done, the user could be redirected to a webpage different from MailChimp.





(1.1) Use the following tests to illustrate the scenario painted above.
The redirected webpage address is “http://www.tetraph.com/essayjeans/poems/thatday.html”. We can suppose that this webpage is malicious.













(2) Olark Open Redirect Vulnerability











(2.1)Use one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage address is “http://www.tetraph.com/essaybeans/“. Can suppose that this webpage is malicious.
















(3) Kaneva Sign-in Page Open Redirect Vulnerability


The vulnerability exists at “loginSecure.aspx” page with “logretURLNH” parameter, i.e.
http://www.kaneva.com/loginSecure.aspx?logretURLNH=http%3a%2f%2fmsn.com [1]




When unlogged victims click the URL ([1]) above, the Kaneva Sign-in page is displayed. The victims need to enter their username and password. After which, they will be redirected to a webpage different from Kaneva.




Tests were performed on Firefox (26.0) in Ubuntu (12.04) and IE (9.0.15) in Windows 7.




(3.1) Use the following tests to illustrate the scenario painted above.
The redirected webpage address is “http://www.tetraph.com/essaybeans/“. Can suppose that this webpage is malicious.











The program code flaw can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (9 9.0.8112.16421) of Windows 7, Mozilla Firefox (37.0.2) & Google Chromium 42.0.2311 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04.2),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X v10.9 Mavericks. These bugs were found by using URFDS.

 

 

 


Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)





Source:

Godaddy Online Website Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs Based on Google.com

StudyShare_GoDaddy2

 

Godaddy Online Website Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs Based on Google.com

 

(1) Domain:
godaddy.com

 

 

“GoDaddy is a publicly traded Internet domain registrar and web hosting company. As of 2014, GoDaddy was said to have had more than 59 million domain names under management, making it the world’s largest ICANN-accredited registrar. It serves more than 12 million customers and employs more than 4,000 people. The company is known for its celebrity spokespeople, Super Bowl ads and as being an online provider for small businesses. In addition to a postseason college football bowl game, it sponsors NASCAR. It has been involved in several controversies related to security and privacy. In addition to domain registration and hosting, GoDaddy also sells e-business related software and services.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:
Godaddy web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks. 

 


The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7. 

 

The vulnerability occurs at “redirect.aspx?” page with “&target” parameter, i.e.
http://img.godaddy.com/redirect.aspx?ci=1161&target=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com

 

 

 

(2.1) When a user is redirected from Godaddy to another site, Godaddy will check whether the redirected URL belongs to domains Godaddy’s whitelist, e.g.
google.com
apple.com

 

If this is true, the redirection will be allowed.

 

However, if the URLs in a redirected domain have open URL redirection vulnerabilities themselves, a user could be redirected from Godaddy to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site. This is as if being redirected from Godaddy directly.

 

One of the vulnerable domain is,
google.com

 

 

 

(2.2) Use one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage address is “http://diebiyi.com/articles/“.  Can suppose that this page is malicious.

 

Vulnerable URL:
http://img.godaddy.com/redirect.aspx?ci=1161&target=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.godaddy.com

 

POC:
http://img.godaddy.com/redirect.aspx?ci=1161&target=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Faccounts%2FLogout%3Fservice%3Dwise%26continue%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fgoogleads.g.doubleclick.net%252Faclk%253Fsa%253DL%2526ai%253DCtHoIVxn3UvjLOYGKiAeelIHIBfLQnccEAAAQASAAUNTx5Pf4_____wFgvwWCARdjYS1wdWItMDQ2NjU4MjEwOTU2NjUzMsgBBOACAKgDAaoE5AFP0NHr5cHwFmWgKNs6HNTPVk7TWSV-CDHX83dKdGSWJ2ADoZNIxUHZwjAODRyDY_7nVtpuqSLOTef4xzVxDQ2U22MNbGak33Ur7i2jDB8LdYt9TbC3ifsXmklY5jl3Zpq4_lP7wagVfjt0–tNPPGTR96NGbxgPvfHMq9ZsTXpjhc_lPlnyGjlWzF8yn437iaxhGRwYLt_CymifLO2YaJPkCm9nLpONtUM-mstUSpKQrP2VjjaZkbDtuK0naLLBV37aYEY4TzWQi8fQGN47z4XgpinBCna91zQayZjn2wxccDCl0zgBAGgBhU%2526num%253D0%2526sig%253DAOD64_3Qi4qG3CRVHRI5AHSkSGuL7HJqSA%2526client%253Dca-pub-0466582109566532%2526adurl%253Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.tetraph.com%252Fcontact.html

 
 
 
 
 
Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/godaddy-covert-redirect-vulnerability.html


 
 
 
(3) What is Covert Redirect?
Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 
 Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on, such as OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well. 
 
 
 
 
 
Discover and Reporter:
Jing Wang, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. 
(@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/








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http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/godaddy-covert-redirect-vulnerability-based-on-google/
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/234603051201444111919171/
http://whitehatpost.lofter.com/post/1cc773c8_706b6bf
http://japanbroad.blogspot.jp/2015/06/godaddy-bug.html
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